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中国停建100多座火电厂:控雾霾遏产能 China Cancels 104 Coal Plants, Mindful of Smog and Wasted Capacity

有83人浏览 日期:2017-01-23放大字体  缩小字体

美媒称,中国政府近日宣布,取消兴建100多座火力发电厂的计划,试图让该国摆脱堪称“最脏发电形式”的同时,控制该领域的投资失控和浪费现象。

美国《纽约时报》网站1月20日刊登题为《控雾霾遏产能 中国取消103个火力发电项目》的报道称,本周,中国国家能源管理局在2016年停止18个煤电项目基础上,直接取消了计划中和在建的85个项目,其中包括数十个已开始建设的项目。它们分布在13个省市,大部分位于中国煤炭资源丰富的北部和西部。绿色和平组织编制的数据显示,仅这些项目的发电能力加起来比整个德国的火力发电量还高。

报道称,取消这些项目,增加了中国实现到2020年时将总的火力发电量控制在11亿千瓦目标的可能性。目前,中国火电厂约半数产能闲置,风能、太阳能、核能等新能源项目正在快速上线。

然而,如果现在还不开始取消正在筹备中的火电厂,到2020年时,中国的发电能力会远远超过11亿千瓦。

“关键在于,的确中国还有很长的路要走,但过去几年,中国已经走了非常长的一段路了,”绿色和平组织驻北京的研究员柳力说。

报道称,火力发电是造成全球变暖的温室气体的最大来源,来自这类发电厂的污染也是今年冬天笼罩中国大片地区的雾霾的原因之一。尽管最近几年中国的火力发电能力大幅增加,但中国的煤炭消耗量却从2013年开始一直在下降。

报道称,不过中国电网运营商往往更喜欢火力电厂发的电,而不是利用风能和太阳能发的电。尽管有所削减,中国仍在建设远远超出自身需求的发电能力。

相比之下,据美国能源情报署称,到2020年为止,美国只有四座火电厂计划上线。这是因为美国在2015年开始转向天然气、风能和太阳能。

报道称,尽管政府发布了指示,但位于中国东南部的厦门大学中国能源政策研究院院长林伯强说,并不清楚中国受该指示影响最大的地区,会不会真的采取代价高昂的举措,停止施工、解雇工人、撤销合同。

“一些项目可能已经持续10年了,现在又下令叫停,”他在电话上说。“很难说服地方政府放弃。”但林伯强和柳力说,有一个因素增加了该指示成功的可能性,即其具体性。它指名道姓地列出了要取消的项目,这就增加了继续推进项目的难度。

China’s National Energy Administration (NEA) has ordered the cessation or postponement of 104 coal-fired power projects in 13 provinces scattered around the country.

The body responsible for formulating and implementing energy development plans and industrial policies issued the order on January 16 to achieve goals to cap national installed coal capacity at 1,100 GW as outlined in its 13th Five-Year plan (2016–2020). The country’s current coal capacity hovers at about 920 GW.

The order affects projects worth a total 120 GW. about 54 GW of that capacity are reportedly projects already under construction.

It is the latest effort by China’s government to reign in a coal capacity glut stemming from falling power demand on the back of an economic slowdown. The country also wants to tamp down its carbon emissions and slash pollution. In its March 2016–released 13th Five-Year Plan, China set targets to reduce its carbon and energy intensity by 18% from 2015 levels while also seeking to grow the country’s economy by more than 6.5% per year over the next five years. This will be a first step toward achieving its Paris Agreement pledge to reduce carbon intensity 60% to 65% from 2005 levels by 2030.

In April 2016, the National Development and Reform Commission and NEA jointly issued and order to suspend or slow plans for more than 100 GW of coal-fired capacity—nearly 200 plants that were in development but not yet under construction—to curb overcapacity in the generation sector. In July, reports emerged that the 13th Five-Year Plan would extend a ban on new coal plant construction nationwide at least through 2018. In October, the government reportedly ordered a halt to construction on at least 30 coal-fired power plants totaling 17 GW of capacity.

Preliminary energy data released by the NEA says that total electricity consumption rose by 5% in 2016, owing primarily to a 2.9% increase in electricity demand from industry, 5.3% from the agricultural sector, 11.2% from the services sector, and 11% from households.

The country’s power capacity mix also changed markedly in 2016. It added 24% more nuclear power capacity (about 34 GW), 3.9% more hydropower capacity, and 5.3% more thermal capacity than in 2015. Grid-connected renewables saw a surge of 13.2% for wind and 82% for solar compared to 2015.

 
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